The word applications can be used in a different subject and have a different meaning. If the word is used in English subject, a student can very easily say that application refers to some oral or written request to the concerned authorities in a desire of some favor. In medical terms, the application means applying some lotions or cream on skin or wound through which the purpose of healing is solved. But when the word application is used in Science related subjects then the meaning would be different.
Applications of Elisa Test
The application here refers to the act of applying some techniques for a particular purpose or usage. In other words, in a scientific world, there is a number of applications available for each and every use as the world of science is vast. Lately, the meaning of application has turned out to be a computer program which has an interface and helps people to make use of the computer as a tool and succeed in accomplishing the tasks.
Elisa Test – Used in Biotechnology subject and Medicine
ELISA as per medical terms refers to Enzyme-Linked Immune Sorbent Assay. It is one of the techniques used in Biotechnology subject and Medicine. This method is used as a diagnostic tool to identify peptides, antibodies, proteins, and hormones. ELISA can also be called as Enzyme Immunoassay (EIA). ELISA is useful in measuring antigen and antibody concentration.The applications of ELISA technique can be made in the detection of the presence of the substance. Based on the strategies used in detection, applications of ELISA can be used in Chromogenic assays; chemifluorescent assays and chemiluminescent assays.
- When a product shows a colored reaction by absorbing light in the spectrum of visibility which finally can be seen by the naked eye without an additional lens, the test can be termed as a Chromogenic assay. We find that the color changes are proportional to the amount of analyte used.
- When enzymes are added to the substrate, then a reaction takes place and the product shines when the light particles are released at a specific wavelength. When the enzymes find use in the Application of ELISA, those type assays can be referred as Chemifluorescent assays. Here also, like in Chromogenic assay, the color changes are proportional to the amount of analyte used.
- Unlike Chemifluorescent assays, when enzymes are added to the substrate, the enzyme tries to convert the resulting into a product which releases photons of light instead of light particles. When a light is produced by a chemical reaction, it is Chemiluminescence. When the chemiluminescent substance is disturbed by the process of oxidation and catalysis, intermediates are formed. These are then converted back to their stable ground state, the release of photon takes places, which can be detected by the luminescent signal instrument.
No matter what applications of ELISA are used, the basic objective is to test the presence of the substance. The results when compared to other sorts of immune assays such as Radio Immuno Assay (RIA), it is found that ELISA tests can be considered more accurate, highly sensitive, and specific.