Eye Doctor Explains How the Human Eye Works

How the human eye works? It all boils down to light and how it reflects off the surface of an object in the field of vision to enter the eye and allows for image processing and interpretation. Once light reflects off the surface of an object in the field of vision, it reaches the ultra-thin veil of tears covering the front part of the eye, where the cornea is located. The aqueous humor on the other side circulates on the front section to ensure the pressure inside remains constant. Light goes through the aqueous humor and the pupil, the central circular opening in the iris. It varies in size to control the amount of light getting inside the eye.

The lens follows the iris and is used to focus like – a principle that has been used to make cameras. Elite Vision eye doctor Pembroke Pines explains that It also alters its shape depending on the distance between the object and the eye.

The Retina

Once light hits the center of your eye, it goes through the vitreous to reach the retina, which lies somewhere at the back of the eye. The retina is something like the screen where an image is projected. It contains light cells known as photoreceptors.


At the center of the retina is the macula – the focal point with more light-sensitive nerve endings (photoreceptors), which comprises rods and cones that convert the received light rays into electrochemical signals and sends them to the human brain for further processing and interpretation.

Retinal Pigment Epithelium lies beneath the photoreceptors and acts to absorb excess light for a clearer signal. They also supply the photoreceptors with nutrients and get rid of wastes from them.


This hard, whitish, fibrous material lies outside the eye and protects it from outside pressure. The photoreceptors send signals to the optic nerve to be carried to the brain.

How the Eye Works

Therefore, the eye works by picking up light rays reflected off the surface of objects. The light passes through the cornea, located on the outside of the eye, particularly the front part. This light then enters the eye through the pupil, which is colored and acts as a window. Once the light rays reach the lens, they are focused and passed to the retina. That is the film screen on which images are projected. The lens is held by the iris, which contains muscle-like fibers that contract and relax to adjust the size and shape of the lens. Depending on how far the eye perceives the object of interest. The lens then focuses this light on the retina for interpretation.

The retina contains photoreceptors which receive the image, converts it into electrochemical signals. It send to the brain via the optic nerve which lies adjacent to the retina. The RPE in the retina may have to absorb any excess light to ensure the signal received is clearer. This signal is then sent to the brain for further interpretation to help identify the object, its color, size, and even shape. If any part of the eye is not working correctly due to eye injury or disease, one may experience vision loss.

Muhammad Irfan
Muhammad Irfan
Irfan Bajwa is an emerging business enthusiast and passionate blogger and writer on a versatile level.


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